Essentials for Viable Audio over IP Distribution


Werner Drews TV-Bay Magazine
Read ezine online
by Werner Drews
Issue 95 - November 2014

Using IP for audio distribution is an enticing prospect for most broadcasters. It offers the prospect of OPEX economies and opens up a lot of new flexibility for infrastructure design: backup and regionalisation solutions are among the many possibilities.

IP lines can be used for STL (Studio to Transmitter Links), for studio to studio links, mobile studios and OB trucks linking to the studio, or other types of audio over IP streaming. Apart from the lower costs compared to other technologies such as E1 lines, radio line networks, or satellite uplinks, IP as a distribution method has many advantages. The transport network is scalable, and there's a choice of different providers. Lines can be activated and deactivated flexibly, and it's a transparent transport platform based on standard technology from the studio to the transmitter. For small to medium sized networks, it's also simple to implement.

But there are limitations, and these have meant that broadcasters have tended to use more expensive dedicated IP lines with high QoS parameters, which are more reliable, but which do not provide the same flexibility and cost benefits. Ordinary IP links are prone to packet delay, where the branch with the highest delay causes the other branches to be delayed too. Packet jitter - fluctuating packet arrival times - increases the need for buffer management. Packet loss causes audio dropouts, and compensating correction mechanisms reduce the bandwidth-efficiency. And a complete IP line failure means the end of the transmission.

So the apparent attractions of IP are not quite so compelling as they might seem initially, and broadcasters who implement infrastructure using basic IP components have little or no protection against these problems. The key to achieving the best balance between secure performance and the cost-efficiency lies in the use of infrastructure designed to compensate for the limitations of ordinary IP networks. The basic hardware for audio over IP is cheap but will not deliver the robust performance and quality a broadcaster needs. A little more CAPEX expenditure on systems with advanced features can deliver both the quality required for professional broadcast operations, and long-term OPEX savings.

These features include error correction that is sophisticated enough to compensate fully for transmission errors on the IP network, so that packet loss does not result in audio degradation or loss of the broadcast transmission. Dual IP source inputs with automatic selection of the best signal from each source before decoding provides further resilience against transmission errors. Intelligent buffer management lowers transmission delay, and advanced redundancy management guarantees continuity of the broadcast transmission in the event of failure from the IP source.

Because one of the key attractions of audio over IP is the flexibility it allows, it's a mistake to choose IP hardware that is limited and inflexible. For this reason, 2wcom's audio over IP solutions combine capabilities in a way that lets broadcasters adapt and change their network configurations without having to re-invest in new hardware.

An important part of the formula for solidity is good monitoring information, and if the hardware chosen for the IP transmissions provides nuanced and informative monitoring data, it increases the broadcaster's ability to be proactive in anticipating failures.

The solidity provided by dual input streams, intelligent forward error correction, multi format audio encoding and decoding, and advanced redundancy management with automated switchover to alternative sources (satellite, FM rebroadcast, Icecast, and internally stored gap filler content) means that IP can play a major part in the audio distribution without the broadcaster risking loss of quality or service. In case of a failure of the device there should be redundant switch over - a passive loop-through of the device.

One inherent aspect of IP that has direct consequences for audio broadcasting is the lack of precision timing, and this makes it difficult to implement SFNs (Single Frequency Networks). It's important for a high quality AoIP device to provide the timing accuracy required, so that broadcasters have the option of implementing SFNs as required, while still using and benefiting from the IP infrastructure.

These features are not widely available, and basic AoIP devices provide few or none. But to make Audio over IP viable for broadcast distribution, it's necessary to have most of them, as some broadcasters are finding - after trying to do without.


Tags: iss095 | werner drews | 2wcom | viable audio | IP | distribution | Werner Drews
Contributing Author Werner Drews

Read this article in the tv-bay digital magazine
Article Copyright tv-bay limited. All trademarks recognised.
Reproduction of the content strictly prohibited without written consent.

Related Interviews
  • Clear-Com Free Speak II IP Transceiver at IBC 2018

    Clear-Com Free Speak II IP Transceiver at IBC 2018

  • PHABRIX QXIP support for SMPTE 2110

    PHABRIX QXIP support for SMPTE 2110

  • HDMI over IP and KVM over IP with the Apantac OG-Mi 9 series shown at IBC 2018

    HDMI over IP and KVM over IP with the Apantac OG-Mi 9 series shown at IBC 2018

  • IP Prompting from Portaprompt at IBC 2018

    IP Prompting from Portaprompt at IBC 2018

  • Guntermann and Drunck show KVM over IP at IBC 2018

    Guntermann and Drunck show KVM over IP at IBC 2018

  • CueScript CueB with OpenGear at IBC 2018

    CueScript CueB with OpenGear at IBC 2018

  • CueScript show their IP CSM Monitors at IBC 2018

    CueScript show their IP CSM Monitors at IBC 2018

  • KVM over IP from Guntermann and Drunck at NAB 2018

    KVM over IP from Guntermann and Drunck at NAB 2018

  • CueiT Software from CueScript at NAB 2018

    CueiT Software from CueScript at NAB 2018

  • PAM-IP and ST-2110 support from TSL at NAB 2018

    PAM-IP and ST-2110 support from TSL at NAB 2018

  • Clear-Com E-IPA Card for Eclipse HX Digital Matrix at NAB 2018

    Clear-Com E-IPA Card for Eclipse HX Digital Matrix at NAB 2018

  • Compass X Heads from Miller Tripods at NAB 2018

    Compass X Heads from Miller Tripods at NAB 2018

  • All IP Workflow from Quantum with Xcellis Workflow Storage solutions at NAB 2018

    All IP Workflow from Quantum with Xcellis Workflow Storage solutions at NAB 2018

  • Soft step migration to IP with Media Links at NAB 2018

    Soft step migration to IP with Media Links at NAB 2018

  • 3D Storm discuss IP and NDI for Live Media Server and Live CG Broadcast at NAB 2018

    3D Storm discuss IP and NDI for Live Media Server and Live CG Broadcast at NAB 2018

  • Facilis ships version 10.1 at NAB 2018

    Facilis ships version 10.1 at NAB 2018

  • ROSS Ultrix IP and more from NAB 2018

    ROSS Ultrix IP and more from NAB 2018

  • Telos Infinity IP Broadcast Intercom from Telos Alliance shown at BVE 2018

    Telos Infinity IP Broadcast Intercom from Telos Alliance shown at BVE 2018

  • IP Ready Prompting Solutions from CueScript shown at BVE 2018

    IP Ready Prompting Solutions from CueScript shown at BVE 2018

  • Sennheiser iPhone Microphones at IBC 2107

    Sennheiser iPhone Microphones at IBC 2107

  • IP Prompting from Portaprompt at IBC 2017

    IP Prompting from Portaprompt at IBC 2017

  • Miller Compass X Series of Tripod Heads shown at IBC 2017

    Miller Compass X Series of Tripod Heads shown at IBC 2017

  • New IDX Technology IPL V-Mount Battery range at IBC 2017

    New IDX Technology IPL V-Mount Battery range at IBC 2017

  • CellSat - the cell and Ku-band IP satellite solution from Dejero at IBC 2017

    CellSat - the cell and Ku-band IP satellite solution from Dejero at IBC 2017

  • IP Gateway from Dejero at NAB 2017

    IP Gateway from Dejero at NAB 2017

  • HDR, 12G, 4k, IP - the range expands from Phabrix at NAB 2017

    HDR, 12G, 4k, IP - the range expands from Phabrix at NAB 2017

  • IP, 3G-SDI + HDR generation, analysis and monitoring from Phabrix NAB 2017

    IP, 3G-SDI + HDR generation, analysis and monitoring from Phabrix NAB 2017

  • Mission Critical IP Transport Solutions from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

    Mission Critical IP Transport Solutions from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

  • Video Transport over IP from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

    Video Transport over IP from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

  • Uncompressed Video over IP from Matrox at NAB 2017

    Uncompressed Video over IP from Matrox at NAB 2017

  • House of Worship Multisite Streaming from VITEC at NAB 2017

    House of Worship Multisite Streaming from VITEC at NAB 2017

  • IPTV Digital Signage from VITEC at NAB 2017

    IPTV Digital Signage from VITEC at NAB 2017

  • Get on the IP ladder with Netgazer from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

    Get on the IP ladder with Netgazer from MediaLinks at NAB 2017

  • Guntermann and Drunck KVM over IP at IBC 2016

    Guntermann and Drunck KVM over IP at IBC 2016

  • Infinity Arm - Matthews Studio Equipment at NAB 2016

    Infinity Arm - Matthews Studio Equipment at NAB 2016

  • Apantac monitoring over IP at NAB 2016

    Apantac monitoring over IP at NAB 2016

  • IMT DR3 IP Diversity Receiver at NAB 2016

    IMT DR3 IP Diversity Receiver at NAB 2016

  • Black Box Agility IP System at BVE 2016

    Black Box Agility IP System at BVE 2016

  • Tips and Tricks for Live Webcasting Events

    Tips and Tricks for Live Webcasting Events

  • CueScript at IBC 2015

    CueScript at IBC 2015

  • Miller Cineline tripods at IBC 2015

    Miller Cineline tripods at IBC 2015

  • Miller Compass tripods at IBC 2015

    Miller Compass tripods at IBC 2015

  • EGRIPMENT G-TRACK at NAB 2015

    EGRIPMENT G-TRACK at NAB 2015

  • SISLIVE Manpak tripod antennas at NAB 2015

    SISLIVE Manpak tripod antennas at NAB 2015

  • EGRIPMENT and VENTUZ at NAB 2015

    EGRIPMENT and VENTUZ at NAB 2015

  • APANTAC IP and SDI Multiviewer at NAB 2015

    APANTAC IP and SDI Multiviewer at NAB 2015

  • MILLER Cineline 70 Tripod System at NAB 2015

    MILLER Cineline 70 Tripod System at NAB 2015

  • EGRIPMENT with VIZRT at NAB 2015

    EGRIPMENT with VIZRT at NAB 2015

  • PLAYBOX TitleBox IP at NAB 2015

    PLAYBOX TitleBox IP at NAB 2015

  • Sachtler Tripods at BVE 2015

    Sachtler Tripods at BVE 2015

  • Philip Blooms recommendations at IBC 2014

    Philip Blooms recommendations at IBC 2014

  • Air Alloy Tripod System from Miller Fluid Heads at IBC 2014

    Air Alloy Tripod System from Miller Fluid Heads at IBC 2014

  • CueScript EMC prompter and control surface at IBC 2014

    CueScript EMC prompter and control surface at IBC 2014

  • ChyronHego PowerClips at NAB 2014

    ChyronHego PowerClips at NAB 2014

  • CueScript Prompters at NAB 2014

    CueScript Prompters at NAB 2014

  • Philip Bloom on Tour in Belfast

    Philip Bloom on Tour in Belfast

  • Autocue DSLR Prompter using iPad at IBC 2013

    Autocue DSLR Prompter using iPad at IBC 2013

  • Clear-Com Eclipse HX at NAB 2013

    Clear-Com Eclipse HX at NAB 2013

  • LiveU: Smart Grip at NAB 2013

    LiveU: Smart Grip at NAB 2013

  • Autoscript at IBC 2012

    Autoscript at IBC 2012

  • Featured Clip: Geoff Boyle comments on NAB 2012

    Featured Clip: Geoff Boyle comments on NAB 2012

  • Clear-Com Eclipse MADI Card at NAB 2012

    Clear-Com Eclipse MADI Card at NAB 2012

  • Clear-Com Eclipse at NAB 2012

    Clear-Com Eclipse at NAB 2012

  • Autoscript at BVE 2012

    Autoscript at BVE 2012

  • Autoscript at BVE North 2011

    Autoscript at BVE North 2011

  • Autoscript at IBC2011

    Autoscript at IBC2011

  • IPV at IBC2011

    IPV at IBC2011

  • Haivision on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Haivision on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Telestream Vantage v5 at NAB 2013

    Telestream Vantage v5 at NAB 2013

  • New Phone and Tablet products from Padcaster at NAB 2018

    New Phone and Tablet products from Padcaster at NAB 2018

  • PARADISO Lite commentary unit from Glensound at BVE 2018

    PARADISO Lite commentary unit from Glensound at BVE 2018

  • Skyline 90 from Miller at NAB 2017

    Skyline 90 from Miller at NAB 2017

  • Combo Live 55 Pedestal from Miller at NAB 2017

    Combo Live 55 Pedestal from Miller at NAB 2017

  • Virtual and Augmented Reality support with the Arrow Fx7 from Miller at NAB 2017

    Virtual and Augmented Reality support with the Arrow Fx7 from Miller at NAB 2017

  • Telos Alliance at BVE 2017

    Telos Alliance at BVE 2017

  • The Telos Alliance at IBC 2016

    The Telos Alliance at IBC 2016

  • NewTek at IBC 2016

    NewTek at IBC 2016

  • Apantac UHD conversion technology at IBC 2016

    Apantac UHD conversion technology at IBC 2016

  • Miller Camera Support at IBC 2016

    Miller Camera Support at IBC 2016

  • Sennheiser HandMic digital and MKE 440 at IBC 2016

    Sennheiser HandMic digital and MKE 440 at IBC 2016

  • Wohler at IBC 2016

    Wohler at IBC 2016

  • Nevion at NAB 2016

    Nevion at NAB 2016

  • Miller Arrow X Series at NAB 2016

    Miller Arrow X Series at NAB 2016

  • Cinegy at IBC 2015

    Cinegy at IBC 2015

  • Clear-Com at IBC 2015

    Clear-Com at IBC 2015

  • Elemental Technologies news at IBC 2015

    Elemental Technologies news at IBC 2015

  • Autocue at BVE 2015

    Autocue at BVE 2015

  • KITPLUS rig setup at IBC 2014

    KITPLUS rig setup at IBC 2014

  • Dalet at IBC 2014

    Dalet at IBC 2014

  • Glensound Dante at IBC 2014

    Glensound Dante at IBC 2014

  • Clear-Com LinQ at IBC 2014

    Clear-Com LinQ at IBC 2014

  • Thomson Video Networks at IBC 2014

    Thomson Video Networks at IBC 2014

  • BBright at IBC 2014

    BBright at IBC 2014

  • Viaccess-Orca at IBC 2014

    Viaccess-Orca at IBC 2014

  • Cineline Fluid Head from Miller Camera Support at NAB 2014

    Cineline Fluid Head from Miller Camera Support at NAB 2014

  • Perception at NAB 2014

    Perception at NAB 2014

  • ChyronHego at NAB 2014

    ChyronHego at NAB 2014

  • Cinegy at NAB 2014

    Cinegy at NAB 2014

  • Elemental Technologies Software-Defined Video at NAB 2014

    Elemental Technologies Software-Defined Video at NAB 2014

  • Elemental Technologies HEVC solutions at NAB 2014

    Elemental Technologies HEVC solutions at NAB 2014

  • Elemental Technologies Multiscreen Solutions at NAB 2014

    Elemental Technologies Multiscreen Solutions at NAB 2014

  • Libec ALLEX slider system at NAB 2014

    Libec ALLEX slider system at NAB 2014

  • Glensound Cub at BVE 2014

    Glensound Cub at BVE 2014

  • The tv-bay Tour in Manchester June 2014

    The tv-bay Tour in Manchester June 2014

  • The tv-bay Tour in London June 2014

    The tv-bay Tour in London June 2014

  • October TOUR 2013 Roundup

    October TOUR 2013 Roundup

  • Pinewood TOUR!

    Pinewood TOUR!

  • Leeds TOUR

    Leeds TOUR

  • Belfast TOUR

    Belfast TOUR

  • Cinegy on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Cinegy on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Trilogy on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Trilogy on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Miranda on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Miranda on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Polecam talk accessories on BroadcastShow LIVE 2013

    Polecam talk accessories on BroadcastShow LIVE 2013

  • SIS LIVEs Mark Shadbolt on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    SIS LIVEs Mark Shadbolt on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • SMPTE on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    SMPTE on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Tektronix at IBC 2013

    Tektronix at IBC 2013

  • Albis Technologies celebrating ten years at IBC 2013

    Albis Technologies celebrating ten years at IBC 2013

  • Bridge Technologies QoE Monitoring with Mobile Videowall Display at IBC 2013

    Bridge Technologies QoE Monitoring with Mobile Videowall Display at IBC 2013

  • Ianiro on BroadcastShow Tour May 2013

    Ianiro on BroadcastShow Tour May 2013

  • Autodesk at NAB 2013

    Autodesk at NAB 2013

  • Clear-Com: Concert at NAB 2013

    Clear-Com: Concert at NAB 2013

  • Scott Hill uses EditShare: Lightworks at NAB 2013

    Scott Hill uses EditShare: Lightworks at NAB 2013

  • Visionary Solutions at NAB 2013

    Visionary Solutions at NAB 2013

  • Cinegy: Multiviewer at NAB 2013

    Cinegy: Multiviewer at NAB 2013

  • Autocue at NAB 2013

    Autocue at NAB 2013

  • Cobham: Mini RF Transmitters at NAB 2013

    Cobham: Mini RF Transmitters at NAB 2013

  • Cobham: RF Transmitter at NAB 2013

    Cobham: RF Transmitter at NAB 2013

  • Thear Technology at BVE 2013

    Thear Technology at BVE 2013

  • TSL Systems at BVE 2013

    TSL Systems at BVE 2013

  • Ianiro at BVE 2013

    Ianiro at BVE 2013

  • Guntermann and Drunck GmbH at BVE 2013

    Guntermann and Drunck GmbH at BVE 2013

  • AC Entertainment Technologies at BVE 2013

    AC Entertainment Technologies at BVE 2013

  • Pinknoise at BVE North 2012

    Pinknoise at BVE North 2012

  • Polecam at BVE North 2012

    Polecam at BVE North 2012

  • Bexel at NAB 2012

    Bexel at NAB 2012

  • Vinten at NAB 2012

    Vinten at NAB 2012

  • Broadcast Pix at NAB 2012

    Broadcast Pix at NAB 2012

  • Visionary Solutions at NAB 2012

    Visionary Solutions at NAB 2012

  • Polecam at NAB 2012

    Polecam at NAB 2012

  • Sachtler at BVE 2012

    Sachtler at BVE 2012

  • Trilogy at BVE 2012

    Trilogy at BVE 2012

  • Chyron at BVE 2012

    Chyron at BVE 2012

  • Autocue at BVE 2012

    Autocue at BVE 2012

  • Teradek at BVE 2012

    Teradek at BVE 2012

  • Ianiro at BVE 2012

    Ianiro at BVE 2012

  • IOV at ProVideo2011

    IOV at ProVideo2011

  • Thear Technology Limited at ProVideo2011

    Thear Technology Limited at ProVideo2011

  • Hague Camera Supports at ProVideo2011

    Hague Camera Supports at ProVideo2011

  • TNP and Rotolight at BVE North 2011

    TNP and Rotolight at BVE North 2011

  • Ianiro at BVE North 2011

    Ianiro at BVE North 2011

  • Elemental Technologies at IBC2011

    Elemental Technologies at IBC2011

  • Datavideo at IBC2011

    Datavideo at IBC2011

  • Harmonic at IBC2011

    Harmonic at IBC2011

  • Sachtler at IBC2011

    Sachtler at IBC2011

  • Tiffen at IBC2011

    Tiffen at IBC2011

  • Haivision at IBC2011

    Haivision at IBC2011

  • Marshall Electronics at IBC2011

    Marshall Electronics at IBC2011

  • Autocue at IBC2011

    Autocue at IBC2011

  • Nevion at IBC2011

    Nevion at IBC2011

  • Pixel Power at IBC2011

    Pixel Power at IBC2011

  • Guided tour of the Global Distribution Stand at BVE 2016

    Guided tour of the Global Distribution Stand at BVE 2016

  • Global Distribution with mLogic at IBC 2013

    Global Distribution with mLogic at IBC 2013

  • Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 Part 1

    Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 Part 1

  • Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 Part 2

    Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 Part 2

  • Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 LIVE Show

    Shure Distribution at BVE North 2012 LIVE Show

  • Global Distribution at BVE 2012

    Global Distribution at BVE 2012

  • Source Distribution and Genelec at BVE North 2011

    Source Distribution and Genelec at BVE North 2011

  • Source Distribution and Rode at BVE North 2011

    Source Distribution and Rode at BVE North 2011

  • Global Distribution at IBC2011

    Global Distribution at IBC2011

  • Atomos Shogun Inferno at BVE 2017

    Atomos Shogun Inferno at BVE 2017

  • BeyondHD - Exoskeleton - at BVE 2015

    BeyondHD - Exoskeleton - at BVE 2015

  • Cobalt Digital at NAB 2014

    Cobalt Digital at NAB 2014

  • ATEME at NAB 2014

    ATEME at NAB 2014

  • Harmonics Peter Alexander on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

    Harmonics Peter Alexander on BroadcastShow LIVE at IBC 2013

  • Vimond Control Center at NAB 2013

    Vimond Control Center at NAB 2013

  • VIZRT at BVE 2012

    VIZRT at BVE 2012

  • Sound Devices at ProVideo2011

    Sound Devices at ProVideo2011

  • Shure at ProVideo2011

    Shure at ProVideo2011

  • Radiant Grid at IBC2011

    Radiant Grid at IBC2011


Related Shows
  • Den Lennie chats to Philip Bloom

    Den Lennie chats to Philip Bloom


Articles
Using Wireless Transmission
Jeremy Benning Wireless acquisition is a staple of live sports, entertainment and reality shows where cable free capture permits shots not previously possible, for health and safety reasons, and gives the camera-operator greater artistic licence to roam. The same is increasingly true of narrative drama where cinematographers are keen to work handheld or Steadicam where that helps tell the story. Any equipment which frees their movement and time by being lighter, easier to use and reliable in performance is going to tick a lot of boxes.
Tags: iss134 | wireless | 4k | transmission | Jeremy Benning
Contributing Author Jeremy Benning Click to read or download PDF
An Epiphany Moment
Peter Savage 2 I had been negotiating the sale of my company and had reached the really hard end of the bargain. We were close to agreeing the final sum after a lot of too-much-give-and-not-enough-take negotiation. The solicitors were calling me, keen for a deal. It had come down to one sticking point and, in my hard ball “I am the Wolf of Wall Street” guise, I wasn’t going to let it go. It would make a value difference of 1.5% on the total outcome. Not much, you might think, but I had already nearly fallen out with the solicitors over their fees and I was giving my advisors an extremely hard time because the corporate adviser couldn’t see how I had already given more than an inch and the buyers were taking more than a mile. I was not going to let them win.
Tags: iss134 | azule | finance | Peter Savage 2
Contributing Author Peter Savage 2 Click to read or download PDF
Accelerated Workflows with eGPU
Mike Griggs From the UK’s National Trust to magazine publishers to manufacturers, digital content creator Mike Griggs has a wide and varied portfolio of clients for whom he creates 3D art, motion graphics and multimedia exhibits. A typical day might involve sampling birdsong near Virginia Woolf’s country estate or creating 3D animations for VR. To keep on top of these demands, Griggs wanted to take the full power of the GPU computing revolution on the road.
Tags: iss134 | sonnet | egpu | amd | post production | editing | Mike Griggs
Contributing Author Mike Griggs Click to read or download PDF
University and Mental Health
Rhiannon Jenkins University study and mental health has been in the media quite a bit over the last year, and I’m sure there are many people wondering what is going on? The issues are complex, and I suppose the focus of employability off the back of a degree course has raised the stress stakes for a lot of young people. I’m only qualified to talk about this from my perspective, and my story began when I joined a course not knowing I had a mental health condition.
Tags: iss134 | portsmouth uni | mental health | student | tvfutures | Rhiannon Jenkins
Contributing Author Rhiannon Jenkins Click to read or download PDF
Protecting the continuity of transmission
Lorna Garrett Your viewers love you. You consistently bring them their preferred channels 24/7. They’ve come to rely on you for their viewing pleasure. They never miss cheering on their beloved sports teams. They’re the envy of their friends as they watch live concerts of their favourite bands. They gather the family around and catch up on their must-see shows. They don’t have a bad word to say about you.
Tags: iss134 | garland | gpl | streaming | artel | disaster recovery | Lorna Garrett
Contributing Author Lorna Garrett Click to read or download PDF