The word streaming can relate to different technologies from different manufacturers in different scenarios and in this short article we are going to take a little tour of what it all means.
When streaming video to the consumer you often see HLS DASH & CMAF mentioned.
HLS is HTTP Live Streaming
Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP
CMAF Common media application format (MPEG-A #19)
These are all adaptive streaming technologies that chop a stream into chunks and encode at different bitrates to squeak the video down the standards web server port in your domestic router.
The goal is to hide as much of the technology as possible from the consumer so they don't know about MP4 or Transport Stream or bitrates or latency or the fact the ads are coming from a different server on the other side of the planet.
Next up we have General Purpose Video over IP solutions that might also use the consumer oriented protocols but often include extra protocols on a local area network that can be made more permissive about port usage, these might be
RTSP Real Time Streaming Protocol - for control
RTMP Ream Time Messaging Protocol - another control protocol
and Multicast broadcasts to get one signal to multiple destinations without duplication
Next we have a bunch of point to point and mesh streaming tools that are often used in speciality applications where you need better quality or lower latency or different resolutions from a single encode.
Now we start to see more protocols appearing like
HDBaseT - HDMI + USB + Ethernet over IP
IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
SDN - software defined networking
And lastly we have protocols that cope with very high bandwidth uncompressed content for pristine productions
NMOS - Networked Media Open Specifications
ST 2022 - High bitrate including uncompressed over IP
ST 2059 - Precision Time Protocol
ST 2110 - component media transport protocols from SMPTE
So there is a lot of streaming out there to meet every need. Not all the solutions
interoperate, so it's worth doing a little homework to make sure the solution fits
your need. Get in touch with KitPlus if you want a quick deep dive on any of these topics
One of the major changes
for broadcasters during the pandemic has been the shift towards remote
production; by no means a new phenomenon in an IP environment, yet accelerated
under lockdown to accommodate travel and gathering restrictions. A 2021 report found
that almost 40% of broadcast professionals now employ remote production, up 9%
on the previous year.
In 2017 we saw the introduction of SMPTE 2110 and since then, the transition to IP has emerged as a priority for broadcasters looking to streamline their operations, decrease their footprint and effectively integrate with an industry in a rapid state of flux. A 2020 survey by Devoncroft found that almost 20% of broadcasters had already deployed SMPTE 2110, and over 25% were planning to do so. Then came the pandemic, precipitating the need for on-the-fly collaboration and accelerating the transition to remote, virtual and cloud production.
With the buzz of ‘cloud’ everywhere in our industry it would
be natural to think that cloud is the only game in town. Isn’t it time to step
back and consider very carefully how, or whether, you make that journey to the cloud?
A good technical specification will detail precisely what is required, from the equipment to the cables connecting it. Many specifications will give particular manufacturers and model numbers. On many occasions, this makes tendering simple and gives vendors a secure and fair way to bid.
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