Articles
Using Modern Technology at Envy Provides a View into the Future of Post Production
Michael Darer ENVY’s use of modern technology, including remote edit capabilities and their expansive use of Signiant Media Shuttle, enables them to collaborate with customers and partners around the world, and made the transition to remote work during the COVID-19 pandemic any easy one. Although project files and media are stored securely on-premises at ENVY’s facilities in London, they are able to collaborate globally thanks to their forward-thinking approach to post production.
Tags: envy | signiant | media shuttle | assetts | Michael Darer
Contributing Author Michael Darer Click to read
State of the Nation and Virtual Social Distancing
Dick Hobbs - new Under normal circumstances, I usually make my plans for NAB in November time. It’s when the airlines tend to have sales. This year, for personal reasons, I did not get around to booking back then, and it was only at the end of February that I could start thinking about it.
Tags: iss142 | nab | kitplus show | iabm | darren whitehead | warner media | streaming | Dick Hobbs - new
Contributing Author Dick Hobbs - new Click to read or download PDF
Accurate Ad Tracking with OTT
Tim Armstrong As viewers embrace and transition to OTT, the opportunities and flexibility provided to advertisers are growing fast. However, like all technology shifts, this transition hasn’t come without challenges. Some technology used to monetise video over the years has resulted in a less-than-ideal viewing experience, with disruptive transitions and buffering two of the main issues. The good news is that advances in ad insertion technology mean content providers can now deliver a seamless OTT viewing experience, as well as addressable advertising options. This paves the way for the delivery of high-quality ad viewing while growing the advertiser's ROI.
Tags: iss142 | ott | switch media | vast | ssai | sdk | om sdk | Tim Armstrong
Contributing Author Tim Armstrong Click to read or download PDF
Why Renting is the New Buying
Ed Tischler To rent or to buy? This has long been a topic of debate in the world of property, with people having to choose between spending virtually all of their money up front or giving their money away each month with little chance of seeing a return.
Tags: iss142 | gravity media | ott | renting | Ed Tischler
Contributing Author Ed Tischler Click to read or download PDF
Working with Remote Workflows
Alex Macleod At the time of me writing this article there is literally no other subject of conversation going on at the moment. The creative industries are on the verge of a complete shutdown, and it’s a seriously scary prospect. The fear & uncertainty is very real.
Tags: iss142 | mediacity training | premier pro | nle | editing | motion templates | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
New Year, New Decade, New Rig
Alex Macleod So I finally decided to pull the trigger and put together my own system using their intuitive configurator which you can find on the 3XS website. It allows you to start with a pre-configured system, and then add or take away elements of the build that best suit your needs. Again - other PC suppliers are available..!
Tags: iss141 | mediacity training | scan computers | 3xs | nvidia rtx 2060 | evolve nle hd plus | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
Creating Diverse Show Content For Diversity
Clive Silver Diversity has been a household name in the UK for many years now. Can you tell us about your involvement with them? After winning Britain’s Got Talent (BGT), the group’s entire existence got turned on its head. One of the first things Diversity’s leader, Ashley Banjo, did was to make a list of all the things he thought made a show great.
Tags: iss141 | diversity | bgt | cs media | braw | ursa minipro | blackmagic raw | braw | Clive Silver
Contributing Author Clive Silver Click to read or download PDF
More than just software - SaaS is a relationship
Jon Finegold As cloud technology becomes mainstream in media, the highly customized applications deployed by early adopters are increasingly being retired in favor of off-the-shelf, multi-tenant SaaS (Software as a Service) solutions. Well-designed SaaS offers economic advantages in terms of much faster onboarding times, orders of magnitude lower TCO and the ability to stay up-to-date more easily in today’s rapidly changing environment. SaaS solutions are updated regularly based on customer feedback and usage data so, as new trends emerge, vendors can respond quickly to the benefit of their customers.
Tags: iss141 | saas | signiant | media shuttle | Jon Finegold
Contributing Author Jon Finegold Click to read or download PDF
MEDIAPRO leads across the audiovisual value chain
Marc Andreu Valls

MEDIAPRO is a leading independent production company in Europe’s audiovisual market. Offering a full slate of technical and creative services, our portfolio includes everything from content production, to post production, to media and digital asset management, to the acquisition of sports TV rights, and the distribution and broadcast of television channels. We currently have 58 offices spread across 36 countries on four continents.

Tags: iss140 | signiant | mediapro | media shuttle | transport | Marc Andreu Valls
Contributing Author Marc Andreu Valls Click to read
A Place For Placements - TVFutures
Luca Di-Maio I've been interested in media all my life… making short films with my mates in Windows Movie Maker when I was little... I never really knew where I wanted to go career wise, but I knew I always liked video production. So it will come as no surprise that I chose a degree that would provide that outlet, and I hoped that dedicating three Years to studying BSc Television and Broadcasting at the University of Portsmouth would turn my fantasy career, into reality.
Tags: iss140 | portsmouth university | avid | nle | media composer | Luca Di-Maio
Contributing Author Luca Di-Maio Click to read or download PDF
Pro Pancake Editing With Premiere Pro
Alex Macleod Pancakes & post production. Not two things you might at first put together. But using pancake timelines can be an extremely effective way of working - so bear with me!
Tags: iss140 | premiere pro | adobe | mediacity training | editing | post | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
IBC 2019 Question Time
Jon Finegold

The media and entertainment industry is in an exciting period of transformation and innovation, and Signiant is thrilled to be in the midst of it. Nowhere was this energy more apparent than at this year’s IBC conference, where we had the opportunity to speak with a wide range of organizations, vendors, and thought leaders to better understand where M&E businesses are at, where they’re going, and what they need.

Now with IBC 2019 in the rearview mirror, we’ve been reflecting on everything we’ve learned, and Jon Finegold, Signiant’s CMO, has taken the time to share his experience from the conference, and how that might affect Signiant as we charge toward 2020.

Tags: iss140 | signiant | ott | streaming | media shuttle | Jon Finegold
Contributing Author Jon Finegold Click to read or download PDF
News Out Of The Cloud - Technology At The Front Line Of Journalism
Stuart Almond Throughout history, journalists have always had to seek and adapt to new technologies to deliver news in a format and at a speed that consumers demanded. Today, recent technological changes in the media environment have led to another inflection point. If modern media outlets want to empower journalists to remain agile and turn news stories around quickly and efficiently, they have to start embracing new, innovative technologies, like cloud-based media solutions.
Tags: iss138 | sony | ofcom | cloud-based media | intelligent | Stuart Almond
Contributing Author Stuart Almond Click to read or download PDF
Make Time for Remapping
Alex Macleod For my 4th Kitplus article I thought I’d highlight an effect in Premiere Pro that frankly I would be lost without. Namely - time remapping.
Tags: iss138 | premiere pro | post production | editing | speed remapping | remapping | mediacity training | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
NAB 2019 Highlights
Paul MacKenzie The NAB Show in Las Vegas never loses its capacity to surprise. With NHK already transmitting in 8K and the Tokyo Olympics just a year away, this might have been the year that 8K equipment prices descended from the stratosphere to just plain expensive. The main trends at NAB 2019 were an increasing focus on HD-HDR, Media-over-IP and 4K. 8K was pretty low key except for a very promising demo on the Sharp stand: an extremely compact 8K camera at an impressively low price point: $4,000. Shooting at 30 frames per second to an internal card and using a prosumer-style Olympus lens, it looked very much an entry-level product but one with phenomenal potential for any videographer looking to work with very large display screen sizes.
Tags: iss137 | finepoint | nhk | media-over-ip | canon xa50 | xa55 | huddlecam | jvc | gy-hc550 | panasonic aw-ue-150 ptz | samsung | 8k signage | hdr10+ | livetrakl-20 | mediakind | Paul MacKenzie
Contributing Author Paul MacKenzie Click to read or download PDF
Post Production on Tour
Alex Macleod I’m writing this article after finally settling back into my office after a busy few days on the Kitplus Tour 2019. The tour saw me travelling from Manchester to Glasgow then onto Bristol, then finally returning back to Manchester. Quite a few miles travelled. But totally worth it.
Tags: iss137 | mediacity training | adobe | premiere pro | kitplus show | glasgow | bristol | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
The Latest Trend in Cloud Ingest Portals
Megan Cater The unique demands of the media industry have created an equally unique ecosystem. With high-resolution video constantly moving over the Internet during production, post production, and multi-device, multi-channel distribution, as well as the need for flexible storage and security at every stage — all under impossibly tight timelines — there isn’t another industry like it. It’s not surprising then that technologies that work for some industries often don’t work the same in media, and cloud ingest is a great example.
Tags: iss137 | signiant | saas | ftp | dropbox | file transfer | media shuttle | Megan Cater
Contributing Author Megan Cater Click to read or download PDF
Cinegy Channel Playout
David Wright Canis Television & Media is a UK-based specialist broadcast services company, providing its clients as a one-stop shop for everything from production facilities to asset valuations to traffic control. In response to growing demand from its clients, Canis identified a need for channel playout facilities.
Tags: iss137 | cinegy | canis media | David Wright
Contributing Author David Wright Click to read or download PDF
Remote Teams and Talent
Megan Cater If your studio works with non-local creative talent, you already know that there are opportunities and challenges associated with distributed production and post production. Bridging the distance not only allows you to find the best talent for the job anywhere in the world, it creates the potential for a diverse and globally-minded workforce that boosts the creativity and vision of your entire company.
Tags: iss136 | signiant | file acceleration | ftp | dropbox | sharepoint | slack | saas | media shuttle | Megan Cater
Contributing Author Megan Cater Click to read or download PDF
Keeping Your Post Prodction on Track with Subclips and Search Bins
Alex Macleod

For my 2nd Kit Plus article I thought I’d try and build on the theme of my first, and that’s one of making sure things are organised at all levels of your post production projects.

Last time I talked about trying as best as you can to stick to the ‘two week rule’, making sure that the names & locations of every asset you import, and every bin & sequence that you create in your project - will make sense to you regardless of how long it is you spend away from it.

Tags: iss136 | mediacity training | subclip | premiere pro | gvs | bve | bve2019 | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
Your two week editing future
Alex Macleod

So here we are - January again! Usually a good time to reflect on the year just gone by, and a good time to look forward to the coming months as the new year begins.

When I was reflecting on my 2018, and when thinking about what to write for my first article for Kit Plus - I kept coming back to one theme - organisation.

Tags: iss135 | editing | mediacity training | premiere pro | dit | Alex Macleod
Contributing Author Alex Macleod Click to read or download PDF
GoPro HERO 7 Review
Tim Bearder When I heard I was filming a nature restoration project in the pouring rain this week I was excited. WHY? No Cameraman enjoys the rain, surely but this time I was enthusiastic because I knew this would be the perfect opportunity to try out the brand new GoPro Hero 7 Black Edition.
Tags: iss134 | gopro | hero 7 | review | liberal media | Tim Bearder
Contributing Author Tim Bearder Click to read or download PDF
Ride along on the Tour de Tech at IBC
Lorna Garrett Finding your way through the halls and aisles of the massive IBC can feel a bit like attempting to complete all 21 stages of the Tour de France — but in far fewer days. But have no fear; your team at Garland is all geared up and ready to show you the best on show at this year's exhibition.
Tags: iss133 | garland | liveu | lu600 | media excel | teracue | wisi | broadcast wireless systems | bws | artel | ibc | Lorna Garrett
Contributing Author Lorna Garrett Click to read or download PDF
Will we soon be paying our respects to PayTV
Malcolm Harland Recent reports show pay TV in the US peaked in 2012 and will keep dropping over the next five years. Digital TV Research’s North America Pay TV Forecasts state the US will see a 20% drop between 2012 and 2023. Should the UK be readying for a similar change in consumer viewing, or is something different happening here?
Tags: iss132 | garland partners | GPL | paytv | ott | iplayer | youtube | ofcom | workflow | sky | virgin media | talktalk | Malcolm Harland
Contributing Author Malcolm Harland Click to read or download PDF
The Pitfalls of Online File Sharing and Sending Services
Mike Nash Easy-to-use, readily-accessible, and consumer-oriented, online file sharing platforms such as Dropbox and Google Drive are, to end users, a pleasant replacement to older file transfer methods such as FTP. FTP is complex to use and requires IT intervention to make almost any change. The pain associated with FTP, which was developed in the 1970s, is one of the factors that opened the door for the rise of online file sharing services in the workplace.
Tags: iss131 | ftp | signiant | efss | dropbox | google drive | ftp | ofss | media shuttle | Mike Nash
Contributing Author Mike Nash Click to read or download PDF
Delivering on the 4k Promise
Lorna Garrett It’s happened. Consumers are demanding 4K UHD content. They have the TVs, smartphones, tablets and other devices they need, and with much of Netflix and Amazon original content in 4K, as well as sports coverage from BT and Sky, consumers have tasted the future of content quality and are hungry for more. But broadcasters need not worry if their customers have enough bandwidth to receive 4K content - the solutions are ready to make 4K distribution a reality. New viewers are waiting if you’re ready to get to them first.
Tags: iss131 | garland | 4k | uhd | hevc | hc11000 | media excel | Lorna Garrett
Contributing Author Lorna Garrett Click to read or download PDF
NAB is all about people
John Smith -new The relative success of NAB is down to people. The individuals we meet, the relationships we make and renew with customers and the desire to work together to develop a technology solution to any given challenge.
Tags: iss130 | media links | nab | mdp 3020 | md8000 | John Smith -new
Contributing Author John Smith -new Click to read or download PDF
Transforming asset management and monetization
Chad Hamilton FremantleMedia is one of the largest global television-production companies in the world — with one of the biggest and most valuable catalogs. We operate in 36 markets, creating, producing, and distributing content across traditional TV and digital platforms at a rate of more than 10,000 hours of programming per year.
Tags: iss130 | freemantlemedia | core | wazee | Chad Hamilton
Contributing Author Chad Hamilton Click to read or download PDF
Interview with Peter Rowsell, Polar Graphics
Polar If you don’t recognise the name Peter Rowsell instantly you no doubt would recognise him in person, from the famous ‘Pink Coconut’ parties during IBC (Brighton) in the 80s or the name ‘Polar Video or Polar Graphics’ both companies which he’s built up over the years.
Tags: iss130 | polar graphics | apantac | bluefish | cinedeck | focalpoint | mediaproxy | stardom | storagedna | Polar
Contributing Author Polar Click to read or download PDF
Taking the lead in the HEVC and 4k revolution
Malcolm Harland There’s probably a good reason that BVE is held in late February — it offers you a few weeks to set your annual plans in place. Then, once you’ve decided on the opportunities you want to take advantage of and improvements you want to make, you have a chance to visit this massive exhibition to see the latest technological innovations that will help to bring your plans to fruition.
Tags: iss129 | garland | hevc | liveu | hc11000 | media excel | ntt | bws | lu600 | Malcolm Harland
Contributing Author Malcolm Harland Click to read
IP for everyone and 4k everywhere - that will be 2018
John Smith -new My first prediction for the coming year is that the use of IP to move broadcast content will increase dramatically.  Ultimately, it will become the commonplace, just as the use of IP has become part of our everyday, consumer lives.  Live sports are closely linked to this growth, as conversion of broadcast signals for transportation across established telecos networks enables content to be viewed in real-time, regardless if it’s in the next room or across the globe.
Tags: iss129 | medialinks | 4k | ip | vr | ai | John Smith -new
Contributing Author John Smith -new Click to read
Epictech makes headway: A case study
Daniel Harker Barnes Founded in January 2014, EpicTech Media have been providing high end video production to companies and musicians across the U.K. for over three and a half years. When approached earlier this year by the band Bodkin Lane, we relished the challenge of producing a video of their charity concert, in aid of Headway (www.headway.org.uk), despite the challenging size of the venue. 
Tags: iss129 | polecam | epictech media | ptz | povcam | Daniel Harker Barnes
Contributing Author Daniel Harker Barnes Click to read
50 years in and the show must go on
John Smith -new At IBC we always look forward to meeting old faces and new. For those more recently acquainted with the broadcast industry, you may not realise IBC was born half a century ago in London. In 1967 the show, held at the Royal Lancaster Hotel, attracted just 32 exhibitors and 500 delegates. However, its popularity grew and the exhibition quickly upgraded with a move to the Grosvenor House Hotel in London, followed by the Wembley Conference Centre, before moving to Brighton.
Tags: iss127 | medialinks | ibc | amsterdam | John Smith -new
Contributing Author John Smith -new Click to read
A 360 degree view of fashion
Michael Parsons Im often asked, what do you do when the students arent around?, and the simple answer is, as it would be from any university technical support member of staff, I get involved in passion projects and these help me to stay up-to-date with the kit and keep my hand-in with video filmmaking.
Tags: iss127 | 360 | vr | portsmouth | university | nokia | ozo | pxw-fs7 | avid media composer | Michael Parsons
Contributing Author Michael Parsons Click to read
Implementing an IP workflow
John Smith -new The eventual move to incorporate IP into your infrastructures is an inevitability. However, with justified concerns about interoperability and uncertainty about which vendors are best placed to help organisations achieve their IP media networking and content delivery goals, is it any wonder there is hesitation about moving forward? Broadcasters very wisely, don't want the pain without the gain!
Tags: iss126 | medialinks | ip | mdp3020 | gateway | John Smith -new
Contributing Author John Smith -new Click to read
Live Remote Production Over IP
John Smith -new As broadcasters migrate to a more ubiquitous IP transport and switching network infrastructure, a key benefit is that the variable expenditures of remote on-site live productions can be dramatically reduced, as it is no longer necessary to carry the high field costs associated with these activities.
Tags: iss123 | medialinks | ip | remote production | John Smith -new
Contributing Author John Smith -new Click to read
Challenges for MAM with varying production types
Jonathan Aroesty Many media asset management platforms are designed to handle the immense number of assets needed for today's fast-moving, content-heavy productions. Since every production is unique, each has its own set of asset management requirements and workflow needs. While the unique workflows vary, a common necessity for an easy-to-use interface with the ability to efficiently organize and manage large amounts of content is required, regardless of the type of production you are working on.
Tags: iss121 | pronology | mam | media asset management | Jonathan Aroesty
Contributing Author Jonathan Aroesty Click to read
Social streaming and broadcast
Craig Moehl We are witnessing a growing trend from broadcasters looking to complement TV content with social streaming. When done well, it can really help increase consumer engagement on a huge scale and we have seen some great examples of it over recent months. At the recent Kit Plus Show, I talked about the marriage between broadcast and social streaming, what works, and what some of our customers have been doing in this arena.
Tags: iss120 | streaming | social media | Craig Moehl
Contributing Author Craig Moehl Click to read
Reducing the costof live production
John Smith Prime time ratings are declining. Viewers can now watch their favourite shows plus new programming where and how they want and it customer loyalty is fast becoming a trait of the past.
Tags: iss117 | medialinks | jpeg2000 | mpeg-2 | md8000 | John Smith
Contributing Author John Smith Click to read
Tips on how to reduce your exposure to business crime
Phil Bower Business Crime is growing in popularity and is cunning, smart, and very convincing. It is being spurred on by the very technology that is supposed to help media and other businesses improve performance. One of the trending frauds is 'Social Engineering' where criminals can make use technology, and trickery to exploite our human nature. Here we outline 2 true stories from clients of Sutton Winson and provide some useful tips on managing your risks:
Tags: iss116 | business crime | social media | online crime | Phil Bower
Contributing Author Phil Bower Click to read
Do you have a MAM solution
Paul Wilkins One of the top questions I get asked at trade shows is, "Do you have a MAM solution?" Well, yes. Of course. It's what we do; but thank you for asking. What you should be asking is, "What differentiates your MAM solution from the rest of the MAM pack?"
Tags: iss115 | mam | tmd | mediaflex | Paul Wilkins
Contributing Author Paul Wilkins Click to read
5 Things I Saw At NAB
Peter Savage 2 ARRI Trinity stabilisation It may look like something that was dreamt up for a sci-fi film but the Trinity stabilisation system is a truly remarkable bit of kit that is most certainly real. Available as an upgrade to the Artemis or a third-party camera stabiliser, it consists of a compact and lightweight two-axis gimbal head, a monitor mount and joystick that attach to the gimbal handle, a battery hanger module and a pendulum that allows for perfect 'drop down' moves. As it works with a vest, it is essentially a cross between a steadicam and a small crane. The shots you can get with this are incredible. It was first s
Tags: iss113 | NAB 2016 | ARRI Trinity Stabilisation | Sony Media Backbone Hive | PVM-X550 | CAPEX | OPEX | OLED | Leyard & Planar 8k video wall | Atomos | Atomos Shogun Inferno | Shotover U1 | Peter Savage 2
Contributing Author Peter Savage 2 Click to read
Class: Multi - Channel Audio
Bruce Devlin If you're given a media file and it has 16 channels of audio then life can quickly become the opposite of boring, especially if it has to go to air quickly and the supplier is new. Put simply there are many ways in which the different channels can be laid out in the file, but there isn't a single overall standard for labelling them. Enter SMPTE ST 377-4 - the Multi-Channel Audio Labelling specification (MCA). It's really boring and this is a good thing.
Tags: iss113 | Audio | Media | Multi-Channel Audio | MCA | MXF | GUI | Bruce Devlin
Contributing Author Bruce Devlin Click to read
Leaving Las Vegas
John Smith I've had the privilege of being a regular visitor and exhibitor at NAB since the early 1980's. One memorable occasion, our flight home had been overbooked and so an alternative arrangement was made. We wondered why it would take four hours to fly from Vegas to LA? As the pilot turned up in full leather flying gear, including goggles and 20 Sony dealer principals and staff were loaded on to a crop sprayer it became clearer! The request-stop service ended up picking-up and dropping-off additional passengers en-route, however, flying low across the desert offered some of the most stunning views of scenery I've ever seen!
Tags: iss112 | NAB 2016 | Media Links | IP | John Smith
Contributing Author John Smith Click to read
IP for live production
John Smith The production and transmission of a live sporting event is one of the most technically challenging assignments for any crew. After all, you can't ask to take the shot again at a live event! Multiple signals in a variety of formats need to be transmitted around the sporting venue, as well as being seamlessly integrated with feeds from a studio or other locations to form a complete broadcast stream.
Tags: iss111 | ip | live production | wan | media links | md8000 | John Smith
Contributing Author John Smith Click to read
Educating with Robots
Sian Roberts Timeline North's post production director, colorist and VFX artist reveal how they used DaVinci Resolve and Fusion to complete 140 sketches for upcoming CBeebies children's series, Spot Bots
Tags: iss110 | blackmagic | resolve | davinci | aaf | vfx | fusion | mediacity | timeline | spot bots | Sian Roberts
Contributing Author Sian Roberts Click to read
Soho shaking all over Manchester
Alan Bradbury It was a busy time for my colleagues and I here at Soho Editors last month, but quite a telling one too. The relentless thrust northward of post-production, film, TV and broadcast services in the UK, saw us - and indeed many other companies - exhibiting at the Kitplus Tour, hosted at the MediaCityUK complex at Salford Quays.
Tags: iss108 | soho editors | davinci | fcpx | after effects | photoshop | kitplus show | mediacity | Alan Bradbury
Contributing Author Alan Bradbury Click to read
In media monitoring, as in medicine, a quick fix is not a cure
Simen Frostad A man is rushed to hospital with a suspected heart attack. The priorities of the medical team that treats him are clear: keep the patient alive, contain the damage to the heart as far as possible, stabilise the situation until the patient is out of danger. They work under the pressure of these immediate priorities, and with little or no information about the patients medical history to date.
Tags: iss107 | playback and analysis | digital media monitoring | data recording | archive server | engineers | medicine | technology | Simen Frostad
Contributing Author Simen Frostad Click to read
Why you might regret automating QC workflows
Bruce Devlin In todays electronic media environment, broadcasters and content owners live and die according to the quality and versatility of their media assets. Not only do consumers expect the best quality viewing experience, but they also expect that viewing experience to be possible on the widest range of devices, at any time and in any situation.
Tags: iss107 | dalet academy | qc workflows | automation | media assets | multi platform | device | Bruce Devlin
Contributing Author Bruce Devlin Click to read
TVFutures:Student pitch
Alex Watson Studying at university is so much more these days than just turn up to lectures, hand in assignments and get a degree, and at the end of my first year studying for a BSc in Television and Broadcasting at the University of Portsmouth, I had the opportunity to attain my Avid Media Composer User Certification.
Tags: iss107 | university of portsmouth | avid media composer | bbc | itv | work experience | placement | student | Alex Watson
Contributing Author Alex Watson Click to read
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