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on one of the production chains the redundancy switch can automatically check the redundant chains to see if the problem exists there too, and switch to one of them if CAS is intact. Switching is therefore available on the basis of services (such as CAS) as well as on simple hardware operation. Further redundancy can be built into the decentralised model by transporting data from the central production system to the antennae via gigabit fibre, using redundant IP chains. Aside from the much greater ability to maintain services when errors occur, the decentralised model delivers operational cost benefits. The modular structure makes it easier for the operator to change configuration when required, and changes can be implemented in a modular fashion and remotely, without the need to send engineers to swap out equipment units, or patch in hardwired changes. Consequently there’s a reduction in costs and less reliance on specialised skills, changes can be made remotely at any time, to any part of the infrastructure simply by uploading new configurations. But there are many possible ways of implementing a decentralised redundancy strategy, and each operator may encounter different situations at different times. So a varying degree of autonomy can be useful. The operator may want to intervene and over-ride the default settings for autonomous operation in certain situations, to make changes to the way individual antenna sites or groups of sites work. To achieve this, the decentralised infrastructure can therefore be designed to allow control of switching from the central NMS, or by intelligent automated switching, or by a completely manual override at the transmitter site if an engineer is present. By allowing a much more flexible approach to satellite infrastructure design, more intelligent switching opens up the possibility of a new decentralised model for satellite operations using a greater standardisation of hardware. Operators can now design lower maintenance and more resilience into their systems, together with a greater flexibility to evolve in response to changing requirements and conditions while maintaining uninterrupted service. Reality Shows | Danger Zones | Big Screen Feeds Congress Centres | Wildlife | Underwater Concerts & Tours | Sport | News +44 (0)1590 622 440 www.bradeng.com